The Plant Rx

Your resource for a plant-based diet

Evidence

This section is still under construction.  Please pardon our dust while it is being finished.

Gene Expression

Ornish D, Lin J, Daubenmier J, Weidner G, Epel E, Kemp C, Marlin R, Yglecias L, Carroll P, Blackburn E.Increased telomerase activity and comprehensive lifestyle changes: a pilot study. Lancet Oncology, 2008; Sept 15.

Ornish D, Magbanua MJ, Weidner G, Weinberg V, Kemp C, Green C, Mattie MD, Marlin R, Simko J, Shinohara K, Haqq CM, Carroll PR. Changes in prostate gene expression in men undergoing an intensive nutrition and lifestyle intervention. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2008; 105(24):8369-74.

Heart Disease, Stroke, Obesity

T. Colin Campbell; Junshi Chen; Bandoo Parpia (1998). “Diet, lifestyle, and the etiology of coronary artery disease: the Cornell China Study”. The American Journal of Cardiology (Elsevier Science) 82, (10, Supplement 2): 18–21. doi:10.1016/S0002-9149(98)00718-8.

Esselstyn CB Jr. et al. A Strategy to Arrest and Reverse Coronary Artery Disease: A 5 -Year Longitudinal Study of a Single Physician’s Practice. The Journal of Family Practice 1995 December; 41(6): 560-68

Esselstyn CB Jr. Updating a 12 -Year Experience With Arrest and Reversal Therapy for Coronary Heart Disease (An Overdue Requiem for Palliative Cardiology). The Am J of Cardiology 1999 August 1; 84:339-341

Esselstyn CB Jr.  Resolving the Coronary Artery Disease Epidemic through Plant-Based Nutrition.  Preventive Cardiology 2001;4: 171-177

Esselstyn CB Jr. In Cholesterol Lowering, Moderation Kills.  Cleve Clinic J of Med 2000 August; 67 (8): 560-564

Ornish D, Scherwitz L, Billings J, et al. Intensive lifestyle changes for reversal of coronary heart disease Five-year follow-up of the Lifestyle Heart Trial. Journal of the American Medical Association. 1998; 280: 2001-2007

Ornish D, Brown SE, Scherwitz LW, et al. Can lifestyle changes reverse coronary atherosclerosis? The Lifestyle Heart Trial. The Lancet. 1990; 336: 129-133

Gould KL, Ornish D, Scherwitz L, et al. Changes in myocardial perfusion abnormalities by positron emission tomography after long-term, intense risk factor modification. Journal of the American Medical Association. 1995; 274: 894-901.

Pischke CR, Weidner G, Scherwitz L, Ornish D. Long-term effects of lifestyle changes on well-being and cardiac variables among CHD patients. Health Psychology, 2008; 27(5): 584-592

Schulz U, Pischke CR, Weidner G, Daubenmier JJ, Elliott-Eller M, Scherwitz L, Bullinger M, Ornish D. Social support group attendance is related to blood pressure, health behaviors, and quality of life in the Multicenter Lifestyle Demonstration Project. Psychology, Health, and Medicine, 2008; 13(4): 423-37

Frattaroli J, Weidner G, Merritt-Worden T, Frenda S, Ornish D. Reductions in angina symptoms and improvements in risk factors in the Multisite Cardiac Lifestyle Intervention Program: Results from the 12-week follow-up. American Journal of Cardiology, 2008; 101: 911-18

Pischke CR, Weidner G, Elliott-Eller M, Ornish D. Lifestyle changes and clinical profile in CHD patients with ejection fraction <40% and >40% in the Multicenter Lifestyle Demonstration Project. European Journal of Heart Failure, 2007; 9: 928-34

Dewell A, Ornish D. Plant-based dietary patterns in the control of obesity and cardiovascular risk. Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports, 2007; 1: 9-15

Daubenmier JJ, Weidner G, Sumner MD, Mendell N, Merritt-Worden T, Studley J, Ornish D. The contribution of changes in diet, exercise, and stress management to changes in coronary risk in women and men in the Multisite Cardiac Lifestyle Intervention Program. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 2007; 33(1): 57-68

Pischke CR, Weidner G, Elliot-Eller M, Scherwitz L, Merritt-Worden TA, Marlin R, Lipsenthal L, Finkel R, Saunders D, McCormac P, Scheer JM, Collins RE, Guarneri EM, Ornish D. Comparison of coronary risk factors and quality of life in coronary artery disease patients with–vs–without diabetes mellitus. American Journal of Cardiology, 2006; 97(9): 1267-1273

Pischke CR, Marlin R, Weidner G, Chi C, Ornish D. The role of lifestyle in secondary prevention of coronary heart disease in patients with type 2 diabetes. Canadian Journal of Diabetes, 2006; 30(2): 176-182

Sumner MD, Elliott-Eller M, Weidner G, et al. Effects of pomegranate juice consumption on myocardial perfusion in patients with ischemic coronary heart disease: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. American Journal of Cardiology. 2005; 96: 810–814

Koertge J, Weidner G, Elliott-Eller M, et al. Improvement in medical risk factors and quality of life in women and men with coronary artery disease in the Multicenter Lifestyle Demonstration Project. American Journal of Cardiology. 2003; 91: 1316-1322

Ornish D. Concise Review: Intensive lifestyle changes in the management of coronary heart disease. In: Braunwald E, et al, eds. Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine (online) 1999

Ornish D. Avoiding revascularization with lifestyle changes: The Multicenter Lifestyle Demonstration Project. American Journal of Cardiology. 1998; 82: 72T-76T

Ornish D. Dietary treatment of hyperlipidemia. Journal of Cardiovascular Risk. 1994; 1: 283-286

Scherwitz L, Ornish D. The impact of major lifestyle changes on coronary stenosis, CHD risk factors, and psychological status: results from the San Francisco Lifestyle Heart Trial. Homeostasis. 1994; 35: 190-204

Ornish D. Can lifestyle changes reverse coronary heart disease? World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics. 1993; 72: 38-48

Ornish D. Can atherosclerosis regress? Cardiovascular Risk Factors. 1992; 2(4): 276-281

Gould KL, Ornish D, Kirkeeide R, et al. Improved stenosis geometry by quantitative coronary arteriography after vigorous risk factor modification. American Journal of Cardiology. 1992; 69: 845-853

Barnard N, Scherwitz L, Ornish D. Adherence and acceptability of a low-fat, vegetarian diet among cardiac patients. Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation. 1992; 12: 423-431

Ornish D. Lessons from the Lifestyle Heart Trial. Choices in Cardiology. 1991; 1(5): 1-4

Ornish D. Reversing heart disease through diet, exercise, and stress management. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 1991; 91: 162-5

Ornish D. Can you prevent– and reverse– coronary artery disease? Patient Care. 1991; 25:25-41

Scherwitz L, Graham LE, Ornish DM. Self-involvement and the risk factors for coronary heart disease. Advances. 1985; 2: 6-18

Scherwitz L, Graham LE, Ornish DM. Self-involvement and the risk factors for coronary heart disease. Advances. 1985; 2: 6-18

Sacks FM, Ornish DM, Rosner B, McLanahan S, Castelli WP, Kass EH. Dietary predictors of blood pressure and plasma lipoproteins in lactovegetarians. Journal of the American Medical Association. 1985; 254: 1337-1341

Ornish DM, Scherwitz LW, Doody RS, et al. Effects of stress management training and dietary changes in treating ischemic heart disease. Journal of the American Medical Association. 1983; 249: 54-59

Ornish DM. Mind/heart interactions: for better and for worse. Health Values. 1978; 2: 266-269

Boden WE, O’rourke RA, Teo KK, Hartigan PM, Maron DJ, Kostuk WJ, Knudtson M, Dada M, Casperson P, Harris CL, et al.  Optimal medical therapy with or without PCI for stable coronary disease. N Engl J Med.2007 Apr 12;356(15):1503-16.

Loder E. Curbing Medical Enthusiasm. BMJ 2007, April 7; 334: doi:10.1136/bmj.39175.409132.3A

Hochman JS, Lamas GA, Buller CE, Dzavik V, Reynolds HR, Abramsky SJ, Forman S, Ruzyllo W, Maggioni AP, White H, Coronary intervention for persistent occlusion after myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med. 2006 Dec 7;355(23):2395-407.

Hochman JS, Steg PG. Does preventive PCI work? N Engl J Med. 2007 Apr 12;356(15):1572-4.

Hussein N, Ah-Sing E, Wilkinson P, Leach C, Griffin BA, Millward DJ. Long-chain conversion of [13C] linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid in response to marked changes in their dietary intake in men. J Lipid Res. 2005 Feb;46(2):269-80.

Campbell TC, Junshi C.  Diet and chronic degenerative diseases: perspectives from China. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994 May;59(5 Suppl):1153S-1161S.

Campbell TC, Parpia B, Chen J. Diet, lifestyle, and the etiology of coronary artery disease: the Cornell China study. Am J Cardiol. 1998 Nov 26;82(10B):18T-21T.

Popkin BM.  Where’s the fat? Trends in U.S. Diets 1965-1996. Prev Med 2001;32:245-54.

O’Dea K, Traianedes K, Chisholm K, Leyden H, Sinclair AJ. Cholesterol-lowering effect of a low-fat diet containing lean beef isreversed by the addition of beef fat. Am J Clin Nutr. 1990 Sep;52(3):491-4.

Wolfe BM & Giovannetti PM (1991):  Short term effects of substituting protein for carbohydrate in the diets of moderately hypercholesterolemic human subjects. Metabolism 40, 338-343.

Wolfe BM & Piche LA (1999): Replacement of carbohydrate by protein in a conventional-fat diet reduces cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in healthy normolipidemic subjects. Clin. Invest. Med. 22, 140-148.

Layman DK, Boileau RA, Erickson DJ, Painter JE, Shiue H, Sather C, Christou DD.  A reduced ratio of dietary carbohydrate to protein improves body composition and blood lipid profiles during weight loss in adult women. J Nutr. 2003 Feb;133(2):411-7.

Noakes M, Keogh JB, Foster PR, Clifton PM.  Effect of an energy-restricted, high-protein, low-fat diet relative to a conventional high-carbohydrate, low-fat diet on weight loss, body composition, nutritional status, and markers of cardiovascular health in obese women. Am JClin Nutr. 2005 Jun;81(6):1298-306.

Farnsworth E, Luscombe ND, Noakes M, Wittert G, Argyiou E, Clifton PM. Effect of a high-protein, energy-restricted diet on body composition, glycemic control, and lipid concentrations in overweight and obese hyperinsulinemic men and women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Jul;78(1):31-9.

Luscombe-Marsh ND, Noakes M, Wittert GA, Keogh JB, Foster P, Clifton PM. Carbohydrate-restricted diets high in either monounsaturated fat or protein are equally effective at promoting fat loss and improving blood lipids. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Apr;81(4):762-72

Aude YW, Agatston AS, Lopez-Jimenez F, Lieberman EH, Marie Almon, Hansen M, Rojas G, Lamas GA, Hennekens CH. The national cholesterol education program diet vs a diet lower in carbohydrates and higher in protein and monounsaturated fat: a randomized trial. Arch Intern Med. 2004 Oct 25;164(19):2141-6.

McAuley KA, Hopkins CM, Smith KJ, McLay RT, Williams SM, Taylor RW, Mann JI. Comparison of high-fat and high-protein diets with a high-carbohydrate diet in insulin-resistant obese women. Diabetologia. 2005 Jan;48(1):8-16.

Appel LJ, Sacks FM, Carey VJ, Obarzanek E, Swain JF, Miller ER 3rd, Conlin PR, Erlinger TP, Rosner BA, Laranjo NM, Charleston J,McCarron P, Bishop LM; OmniHeart Collaborative Research Group. Effects of protein, monounsaturated fat, and carbohydrate intake on blood pressure and serum lipids: results of the OmniHeart randomized trial. JAMA. 2005 Nov 16;294(19):2455-64.

Kalopissis, AD Griffaton G, Fau D.  Inhibition of hepatic very low density lipoprotein secretion on obese Zucker rats adapted to a high protein diet. Metabolism 1995;44:19-29.

Elliott P. Protein intake and blood pressure in cardiovascular disease. Proc Nutr Soc. 2003 May;62(2):495-504.

He J, Whelton PK.  Elevated systolic blood pressure as a risk factor for cardiovascular and renal disease. J Hypertens Suppl. 1999 Jun;17(2):S7-13.

Spencer H, Kramer L, Osis D, Norris C.  Effect of a high protein (meat) intake on calcium metabolism in man. Am J Clin Nutr. 1978 Dec;31(12):2167-80.

Burke V, Hodgson JM, Beilin LJ, Giangiulioi N, Rogers P, Puddey IB. Dietary protein and soluble fiber reduce ambulatory blood pressure in treated hypertensives. Hypertension. 2001 Oct;38(4):821-6.

Washburn S, Burke GL, Morgan T, Anthony M.  Effect of soy protein supplementation on serum lipoproteins, blood pressure, and menopausal symptoms in perimenopausal women. Menopause. 1999 Spring;6(1):7-13.

Prostate Cancer

Ornish D, Weidner G, Fair WR, et al. Intensive lifestyle changes may affect the progression of prostate cancer. Journal of Urology. 2005; 174(3): 1065-70

Daubenmier J, Weidner G, Marlin R, Crutchfield L, Dunn-Emke S, Chi C, Gao B, Carroll P, Ornish D. Lifestyle and health-related quality of life of men with prostate cancer managed with active surveillance. Urology, 2006; 67: 125–130

Dewell A, Weidner G, Sumner M, Chi CS, Ornish D. A very low fat vegan diet increases intake of protective dietary factors and decreases intake of pathogenic dietary factors. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 2008; 108(2): 347-56

Dewell A, Weidner G, Sumner MD, Marlin RO, Barnard RJ, Ornish D. Relationship of dietary protein and soy isoflavones to serum IGF-1 and IGF binding proteins in the Prostate Cancer Lifestyle Trial. Nutrition and Cancer, 2007; 58(1): 35-42

Dunn-Emke SR, Weidner G, Pettengill EB, Marlin R, Chi CS, Ornish D. Nutrient adequacy of a very low-fat vegan diet. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 2005; 105(9): 1442-6

Kronenwetter C, Weidner G, Pettengill EB, et al. A qualitative analysis of interviews of men with early stage prostate cancer: The Prostate Cancer Lifestyle Trial. Cancer Nursing. 2005; 28(2): 99-107

Ornish D, Lee KL, Fair WR, Pettengill EB, Carroll PR. Dietary trial in prostate cancer: Early experience and implications for clinical trial design. Journal of Urology. 2001; 57(4 Suppl 1): 200-201

Breast Cancer

T. Colin Campbell.  Associations_Between_Breast_Cancer_Plasma_Triglycerides_and_Cholesterol.pdf

T.Colin Campbell.  Breast_Cancer_and_dietary_and_plasma_concentrations_of_carotenoids_and_vitamin_A1-3.pdf

Diabetes

Nuttall FQ, Gannon MC.   The metabolic response to a high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metabolism. 2006 Feb;55(2):243-51.

Nuttall FQ, Gannon MC.  Metabolic response of people with type 2 diabetes to a high protein diet. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2004 Sep 13;1(1):652.

O’Dea K (1984):Marked improvement in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in diabetic Australian Aborigines after temporary reversion to traditional lifestyle. Diabetes 33, 596-603.

O’Dea K, Traianedes K, Ireland P, Niall M, Sadler J, Hopper J & DeLuise M (1989):  The effects of diet differing in fat, carbohydrate, and fiber on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in type II Diabetes.

Autoimmune Diseases: Arthritis,

Other Cancers: Colon,

Bingham SA.  High-meat diets and cancer risk. Proc Nutr Soc. 1999 May;58(2):243-8.

Truswell AS.  Meat consumption and cancer of the large bowel. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2002 Mar;56 Suppl 1:S19-24.

T. Colin Campbell. Nutrition_as__Modifier_of_Chemical_Carcinogenesis.pdf

T. Colin Campbell.  The_Influence_of_Nutrition_on_Carcinogensis.pdf

T. Colin Campbell.  The_contribution_of_animal_experiments_to_knowledge_of_the_relationship_between_diet_and_cancer_risk_in_humans.pdf

Larsson SC, Wolk A.  Meat consumption and risk of colorectal cancer: A meta-analysis of prospective studies.Int J Cancer. 2006 Sep 21.

Bingham SA, Hughes R, Cross AJ.  Effect of white versus red meat on endogenous N-nitrosation in the human colon and furtherevidence of a dose response. J Nutr. 2002 Nov;132(11 Suppl):3522S-3525S

Lunn JC, Kuhnle G, Mai V, Frankenfeld C, Shuker DE, Glen RC, Goodman JM, Pollock JR, Bingham SA.  The effect of haem in red and processed meat on the endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Carcinogenesis. 2006 Oct 19.

Hughes R, Pollock JR, Bingham S.  Effect of vegetables, tea, and soy on endogenous N-nitrosation, fecal ammonia, and fecal water genotoxicity during a high red meat diet in humans. Nutr Cancer. 2002;42(1):70-7.

T. Colin Campbell. Dietary_Guidelines_-_Dietary_Fat_and_Cancer.pdf

Osteoporosis

Roughead ZK, Johnson LK, Lykken GI, Hunt JR. Controlled high meat diets do not affect calcium retention or indices of bone status in healthy postmenopausal women. J Nutr. 2003 Apr;133(4):1020-6

Arjmandi BH, Khalil DA, Smith BJ, Lucas EA, Juma S, Payton ME, Wild RA. Soy protein has a greater effect on bone in postmenopausal women not on hormone replacement therapy, as evidenced by reducing bone resorption and urinary calcium excretion. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003 Mar;88(3):1048-54

Pannemans DL, Schaafsma G, Westerterp KR.  Calcium excretion, apparent calcium absorption and calcium balance in young and elderly subjects: influence of protein intake. Br J Nutr. 1997 May;77(5):721-9.

Kerstetter JE, O’Brien KO, Caseria DM, Wall DE, Insogna KL. The impact of dietary protein on calcium absorption and kinetic measures of bone turnover in women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005 Jan;90(1):26-31.

Kerstetter JE, Wall DE, O’Brien KO, Caseria DM, Insogna KL. Meat and soy protein affect calcium homeostasis in healthy women. J Nutr. 2006 Jul;136(7):1890-5.

Kidney Stones

Brenner BM, Meyer TW, Hostetter TH. Dietary protein intake and the progressive nature of kidney disease: the role of hemodynamically mediated glomerular injury in the pathogenesis of progressive glomerular sclerosis in aging, renal ablation, and intrinsic renal disease.N England J Med. 1982 Sep 9;307(11):652-9.

Lippert J, Ritz E, Schwarzbeck A, Schneider P.  The rising tide of endstage renal failure from diabetic nephropathy type II–an epidemiological analysis. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1995;10(4):462-7.

Ritz E, Rychlik I, Locatelli F, Halimi S.   End-stage renal failure in type 2 diabetes: A medical catastrophe of worldwide dimensions. Am J Kidney Dis. 1999 Nov;34(5):795-808.

Wrone EM, Carnethon MR, Palaniappan L, Fortmann SP; Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Association of dietary protein intake and microalbuminuria in healthy adults: Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Am J Kidney Dis. 2003 Mar;41(3):580-7.

Johnson DW.  Dietary protein restriction as a treatment for slowing chronic kidney disease progression: the case against. Nephrology. 2006 Feb;11(1):58-62.

Skov AR, Toubro S, Bulow J, Krabbe K, Parving HH, Astrup A.  Changes in renal function during weight loss induced by high vs low-protein low-fat diets in overweight subjects. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1999 Nov;23(11):1170-7.

Brain Diseases: Dementia, Alzheimer’s Disease, Depression

Weight Loss, Weight Control, Obesity

St Jeor ST, Howard BV, Prewitt TE, Bovee V, Bazzarre T, Eckel RH et al..  Dietary protein and weight reduction: a statement for healthcare professionals from the Nutrition Committee of the Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism of the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2001 Oct 9;104(15):1869-74.

Other

Campbell, T. Colin (2006). The China Study:The Most Comprehensive Study of Nutrition Ever Conducted and the Startling Implications for Diet, Weight Loss and Long-term Health. Benbella Books. ISBN 1-932100-38-5

T. Colin Campbell; Chen Junshi; Thierry Brun; Bandoo Parpia; Qu Yinsheng; Chen Chumming; Catherine Geissler (1991). “China: From Diseases of Povery to Diseases of Affluence. Policy Implications of the Epidemiological Transition”.

Cordain L, Eaton SB, Sebastian A, Mann N, Lindeberg S, Watkins BA, O’Keefe JH, Brand-Miller .Origins and evolution of the Western diet: health implications for the 21st century. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Feb;81(2):341-54.

Cordain L, Miller JB, Eaton SB, Mann N, Holt SH, Speth JD. Plant-animal subsistence ratios and macronutrient energy estimations in worldwide hunter-gatherer diets. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 Mar;71(3):682-92.

Cordain L, Eaton SB, Brand Miller J, Mann N, Hill K. The paradoxical nature of hunter-gatherer diets: Meat based, yet non-atherogenic. Eur J Clin Nutr 2002; 56 (suppl 1):S42-S52.

Bravata DM, Sanders L, Huang J, Krumholz HM, Olkin I, Gardner CD, Bravata DM. Efficacy and safety of low-carbohydrate diets: a systematic review. JAMA. 2003 Apr 9;289(14):1837-50.

Lieb CW.  The effects on human beings of a twelve months’ exclusive meat diet. JAMA 1929;93:20-22.

Lung Disease, COPD,

Jiang R, Paik DC, Hankinson JL, Barr RG. Cured Meat Consumption, Lung Function, and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease among United States Adults.  Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2007 Apr 15;175(8):798-804.


4 Responses to “Evidence”

  1. New Allie said

    Hi Jenna, Finally got around to checking your site out and I’m so glad I did! I always tend to do things the hard way, rewrite the instruction manual rather than read it. Awesome site and great info. Thanks for visiting my blog. We started plant based in October and have fallen on and off the plant wagon but be strive onward and upwards. I was sent home by my then cardiologist in the Summer of 2009 to “enjoy what time I had left,” with advanced CAD and PAD following CABGx3, immediate graft occlusion, stents and failed stent attempts. I admit I started this as a last resort, nothing to lose effort. I felt better after less than three weeks. I can walk slowly in the mall without a wheelchair now. I seldom use the Nitro spray. I began by reading Ornish and Esselstyn and jumped in head first. Thanks again, Allie

    • Jenn said

      Hi, Allie- I’m so glad you stopped by! I’m also really glad to hear that you are feeling better! I’m going to send you an email under separate cover. 🙂 It’s going to be my personal goal to get you back to good health..even if I have to “bug” you everyday. 🙂 Look out for my email!

  2. […] in Los Angeles, The Plant Rx explains the plant-based diet, offers evidence and testimonials to help novice vegans to the seasoned veteran. Packed full of information, you can […]

  3. […] Evidence […]

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